Informasi Umum

What Is Cardiac Arrest? Here Are the Symptoms, Causes, and Immediate Actions to Take

Admin BFI
22 November 2023
What Is Cardiac Arrest? Here Are the Symptoms, Causes, and Immediate Actions to Take

Cardiac arrest is a serious medical event that occurs when the heart suddenly stops beating. It is a condition that requires immediate intervention as it can be life-threatening. In this article, we will discuss what cardiac arrest is, its symptoms, causes, the immediate actions to take, the difference between cardiac arrest and a heart attack, and preventive measures.


1. About Cardiac Arrest

1.1 Causes of Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart's electrical system experiences a serious disturbance. This can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Arrhythmia: When the heart rhythm becomes irregular, such as ventricular fibrillation, where the heart beats irregularly and inefficiently.

2. Heart Attack: A heart attack can cause damage to the heart and lead to cardiac arrest.

3. Chronic Heart Failure: Individuals with chronic heart failure have a higher risk of experiencing cardiac arrest.

4. Toxins or Medications: Certain toxins or medications can interfere with heart activity.

5. Chest Trauma: Serious chest injuries, such as in a car accident, can also cause cardiac arrest.


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1.2 Symptoms of Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest does not come with clear symptoms. Individuals typically immediately lose consciousness and stop breathing. Signs of cardiac arrest include:

1. Unresponsiveness: The individual does not respond to calls or touches.

2. Absence of Breathing or Abnormal Breathing: The individual stops breathing or breathes abnormally with strange sounds.

3. Absence of Pulse: You cannot feel a pulse in the neck or wrist of the individual.


1.3 Triggers of Cardiac Arrest: Understanding Influencing Risks

Cardiac arrest is a serious condition that can affect anyone, but certain specific risk factors can increase the likelihood of someone experiencing cardiac arrest. Knowing these factors is a crucial step in prevention and awareness. Here are factors that can trigger cardiac arrest:

1. Heart Disease: Individuals with heart disease, especially heart failure, have a higher risk of experiencing cardiac arrest. Heart disease can weaken the heart and make it more susceptible to rhythm disturbances that could trigger cardiac arrest.

2. Family History: Family history plays a role in determining an individual's risk of cardiac arrest. If there is a history of cardiac arrest or other heart issues in the family, one's risk may increase. This could indicate a genetic factor influencing heart health within the family.

3. Smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease and cardiac arrest. Cigarettes contain various harmful chemicals that can damage the heart and blood vessels. Smoking increases the risk of developing arterial plaque (atherosclerosis) and disrupts blood flow to the heart.

4. Obesity: Obesity or excess weight can increase blood pressure and blood fat levels, affecting heart health. Excess fat in the body can contribute to the formation of arterial plaque, increasing the risk of cardiac arrest.

5. Age-Specific Risk: The risk of cardiac arrest increases with age. Although cardiac arrest can affect people of all ages, the risk tends to rise with advancing age. Therefore, maintaining heart health and preventive care become increasingly important over time.

6. Excessive Stress: Chronic or excessive stress can negatively impact the heart. Stress can elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and stress hormone release, which, in turn, can increase the risk of heart rhythm disorders that trigger cardiac arrest.

7. History: If an individual has a history of previous cardiac arrest, the risk of subsequent attacks increases. Therefore, those who have experienced cardiac arrest in the past need proper medical care and supervision to reduce the risk of recurrence.


2. Handling Cardiac Arrest

2.1 Initial Response

The first action to take when someone experiences cardiac arrest is to call emergency services or the emergency medical team immediately. After that, the following steps are crucial:

1. CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation): If you are trained in CPR, immediately start chest compressions and artificial respiration. CPR can maintain blood flow to the brain and other vital organs.

2. Use of Defibrillator: If an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available, use it as directed to administer an electric shock that can restore normal heart rhythm.

3. Medical Assistance: The medical team will provide further treatment, such as medications or medical procedures.


2.2 Treatment and Medication

After the initial response, further treatment is necessary. This may include:

1. Intensive Care: Individuals with cardiac arrest will be treated in the intensive care unit for close monitoring.

2. Medications: Medications such as anti-arrhythmics or blood pressure-regulating medications may be administered.

3. Cardiac Catheterization: This may be necessary to examine and clean the heart blood vessels.

4. Bypass Surgery: In some cases, bypass surgery may be required.



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3. Difference from Heart Attack

Cardiac arrest is often misunderstood as a heart attack (myocardial infarction). However, the two are different conditions.


3.1 Symptoms of Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked by a clot, which can damage the heart. Symptoms of a heart attack include:

1. Chest pain felt as pressure or sharp pain.

2. Pain radiating to the left arm, back, neck, or jaw.

3. Shortness of breath.

4. Sweating and nausea.


3.2 Heart Attack Triggers

Risk factors that can increase the likelihood of a heart attack include:


Coronary artery disease.

1. Diabetes.

2. High cholesterol.

3. Hypertension.

4. Smoking.

5. Family history of heart disease.


4. Preventing Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest is a serious and life-threatening condition, and preventing it is the first step in maintaining heart health. The following are crucial steps that can be taken to prevent cardiac arrest and ensure a healthy heart.


4.1 Maintain a Healthy Weight

Maintaining a healthy weight is a key factor in preventing cardiac arrest. Obesity or excess weight can increase the risk of heart disease, which is a common cause of cardiac arrest. By keeping a healthy weight, you can reduce stress on the heart and minimize the risk of cardiac arrest.


4.2 Quit Smoking

Smoking is a primary risk factor for heart disease and cardiac arrest. Cigarettes contain various harmful chemicals that can damage artery walls and increase the risk of arterial plaque formation. Plaque buildup in the arteries can obstruct blood flow to the heart, potentially leading to cardiac arrest. Quitting smoking is the best step you can take to maintain heart health.


4.3 Avoid High-Fat Foods

A healthy diet plays a crucial role in preventing heart disease and cardiac arrest. Avoid consuming high-saturated-fat foods, especially those from processed and fast-food sources. Saturated fat can increase levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) in the blood, leading to arterial plaque formation. Choose low-saturated-fat and high-fiber foods to support heart health.


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4.4 Regular Exercise

Regular exercise has significant benefits for heart health. Regular physical activity helps maintain a healthy weight, improves blood circulation, and strengthens the heart. It is recommended to engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity per week. This can include walking, running, cycling, or other sports activities you enjoy.


4.5 Manage Stress Effectively

Prolonged stress can have a negative impact on heart health. When someone experiences stress, the body releases stress hormones that can increase blood pressure and heart rate. Therefore, it is essential to learn to manage stress effectively. Relaxation techniques, meditation, and enjoyable hobbies can help reduce stress levels and maintain your heart health.


It's important to remember that preventing cardiac arrest involves adopting a healthy lifestyle and managing risk factors. Consult with your medical professional to determine preventive measures that suit your needs. By following these steps, you can help keep your heart strong and healthy, reducing the risk of serious cardiac arrest. Always remember, prevention efforts are key to a healthy and quality life.


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